1871 the known Russian inventor A. Lodigin has offered independent
diving equipment. Little bit later A. Hotinski has designed the
underwater oxygen respiratory device. However all these important
inventions in the field of diving engineering, as well as set of other
Russian inventions in the past, because of indifference of the imperial
officials have not found application in diving practice.
time the oxygen respiratory devices were applied mainly in a mountain
industry at collapses (landslides) in mines (shafts). In the first world
(global) war they under the name oxygen isolated of gas masks (KIP) were
used in chemical divisions of many armies of the world.
wide development and use of independent oxygen devices for underwater
works is caused by necessity of application them at failures of
submarines. Fears of the people from the sunk submarines needed special
individual devices. In the twentieth years the devices of the foreign
marks “Momsen”, “Davis” and hood “Belloni” have appeared, last worked by
a principle of a diving bell. Individual - saving devices of these marks
in one time ‘ were on supply of submarines.
1931 — 1932 the Soviet engineers together with the doctors -
physiologist have designed perfect underwater devices of the marks “E” (Epron)
next two - three years the diving devices were let out for NAVAL Fleet
under the marks E-1, E-2, E-3, E-4 without bypass and E-5 with bypass.
Further in a niche to the country new samples of devices were created:
VAP-1, VAP-2, IPA-1 without oxygen-giving mechanisms and IPA-2 with the
oxygen-giving mechanism of lever system.
1936 the advanced design of the diving device IPA-3 was developed. The
occurrence of devices working on oxilite Substance, absorbing carbonic
gas and allocating oxygen concerns to the same period, However and these
devices have not received distribution in diving practice.
efforts of our designers in the same time (1939) created one of the best
samples of oxygen respiratory diving devices — ISA-M. This device had
the very reliable oxygen
isolated the oxygen respiratory devices (IDA) are widely applied to
performance of various underwater works. The first time at use of these
devices was many cases of various diseases, the oxygen famine is
especial. The intervention of the doctors -physiologist has helped to
prevent cases of diseases. Huge work in this area have done military -
medical academy of a name Kirova and organized in Leningrad the
laboratory on preparation of the naval easy divers is scientific - test.
significant work on improvement of the isolated oxygen respiratory
devices was executed also by (with) the army designers. So on a strictly
scientific basis in our country there was a new branch of diving
business — Easily diving.
the military experts possess creation legendary not only in Russia but
also abroad series of devices under the name IDA. From the very
beginning development of devices of this series went on two directions.
It is devices intended for crews of submarines and devices intended for
realization of underwater, technical works. Last has defined
(determined) destiny of many devices as espionage.
so under the order:
1955 from a marine sea fleet the order for manufacturing of new oxygen
devices suitable as for use was received as saving means on submarines,
and for realization of various diving works on small depths.
In that to year the
experimental model under the mark IDA-55 has appeared, but on what that
to the reasons it has not received the further development and beat is
overlooked (forgotten). And only in 1957 there is a new model of the
oxygen device IDA-57 which with the large success passes tests and
admits suitable for use army and on fleet. Till 1959 model “57” was used
as the universal device which applied as during emergencies (fires
poisoned atmosphere, output (exit) of crews from the sunk submarines),
and at realization of various works under water on depths up to 20
Source: Valeri, Russian rebreather history